Religious pluralism has become a powerful ideal in contemporary life, defining the landscape of religious diversity while prescribing modes of acting across difference. Taking this ideal as a starting place, the contributors to this volume treat pluralism as historically and ideologically produced and as a doctrine that is embedded within a range of political, civic, and cultural institutions. Their critique interrogates the possibility that religious difference itself is framed as a problem only pluralism can solve.Working comparatively across nations and disciplines, these essays explore pluralism as a "term of art" setting the norms of identity and the parameters of exchange, encounter, and conflict. Contributors locate pluralism's ideals in diverse sites-Broadway plays, Polish Holocaust memorials, Egyptian dream interpretations, German jails, and legal theories-and demonstrate its shaping of political and social interaction in surprising and powerful ways. Throughout they question assumptions underlying pluralism's discourse and its influence on the legal decisions that determine modern religious practice. Contributors do more than deconstruct this theory; they tackle what comes next. Having established the genealogy and effects of pluralism, they generate new questions for engaging the collective worlds and multiple registers in which religion operates.