The book is based on research presentations at the international conference, "Emerging Trends in Applied Mathematics: In the Memory of Sir Asutosh Mookerjee, S.N. Bose, M.N. Saha and N.R. Sen", held at the Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Calcutta, during 12-14 February 2014. It focuses on various emerging and challenging topics in the field of applied mathematics and theoretical physics. The book will be a valuable resource for postgraduate students at higher levels and researchers in applied mathematics and theoretical physics.Researchers presented a wide variety of themes in applied mathematics and theoretical physics-such as emergent periodicity in a field of chaos; Ricci flow equation and Poincare conjecture; Bose-Einstein condensation; geometry of local scale invariance and turbulence; statistical mechanics of human resource allocation: mathematical modelling of job-matching in labour markets; contact problem in elasticity; the Saha equation; computational fluid dynamics with applications in aerospace problems; an introduction to data assimilation, stochastic analysis and bounds on noise for Holling type-II model, graph theoretical invariants of chemical and biological systems; strongly correlated phases and quantum phase transitions of ultra cold bosons; and the mathematical modelling of breast cancer treatment.