Janasrimitra (975-1025) was regarded by both Buddhists and non-Buddhists as the most important Indian philosopher of his generation. His theory of exclusion combined a philosophy of language with a theory of conceptual content, or, in simpler terms, an investigation into the nature of our words and thoughts. His theory informed nearly all the work accomplished at Vikramasila, a monastic and educational complex instrumental to the development of Buddhism. His ideas were also vividly debated among the Hindu and Jain philosophers who succeeded him.This volume marks the first English translation of Janasrimitra's Monograph on Exclusion, a careful, critical exploration of language, perception, and conceptual awareness. Featuring the rival arguments of Buddhist, Hindu, and other thinkers, the Monograph reflects more than half a millennium of hotly contested debate along with an invaluable introduction to one of the most important philosophers of late medieval India. Lawrence J. McCrea and Parimal G. Patil familiarize the reader with the authors, themes, and topics included in the text and situate Janasrimitra's findings within his larger intellectual milieu. Their translation and contextualization is clear, accessible, and accurate, opening Janasrimitra's thought to anyone interested in the foundations of Buddhist and Indian philosophy.