During the Sino-Japanese war of 1937-1945, the Chinese people suffered great degradation at the hands of the Japanese. The spectacle of China's debasement as well as the very real prospect of the restoration of alien rule incensed nationalist passions throughout China. As the military, economic, and political crises deepened, three different Chinese regimes emerged--the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), Chinese Nationalist Party or Kuomintang (KMT), and the pro-Japanese government headed by Wang Jingwei--all competing for nationalist legitimacy. Through an exhaustive and meticulous examination of available resources, John Garver here illuminates the complicated relationship between these different variants in Chinese nationalism and the Soviet Union during this period. In doing so, Garver elucidates the diplomacy of Chiang Kai-shek and the Chinese Nationalists, the inner history of Chinese Communist relations with the Soviet Union, and the intersection of these two themes within the larger context of international relations in East Asia and the world.