As news headlines report staggering numbers of people infected with HIV or AIDS across the globe and as stereotypes of typical AIDS patients become less and less specific to particular sexual orientations and ethnic backgrounds, the AIDS pandemic shows little sign of relenting. AIDS crosses geopolitical and social barriers, and social and behavioral scientists are confronted with the new challenge of developing scientific inquiry and corresponding interventions around participatory, community-based, and community-focused methods. These interventions are increasingly targeting the contextual influences on individual behavior, such as peer groups, social networks and support systems, and community norms. Community-level interventions also draw on local resources and are respectful of sociocultural circumstances and traditions. This book articulates how the social and behavioral sciences can respond to HIV/AIDS. It is written for all who have a stake in AIDS research, stimulating discussion and debate about the natures of community research and intervention broadly across such disciplines as public health, community health education, urban planning, psychology, sociology, anthropology, and philosophy of science. The book proposes alternative perspectives on means of ascertaining knowledge about the HIV/AIDS pandemic and the inclusion of community collaboration in interventions.