Research relevant to the topic of distinctiveness and memory dates back over 100 years and boasts a literature of well over 2,000 published articles. Throughout this history, numerous theories of distinctiveness and memory have been offered and subsequently refined. There has, however, never been a book that brings this rich history together with the latest research. This volume is the first to present an historical overview, the results of the current research, and several new theories on distinctiveness and memory. Each chapter contains a review of the relevant literature and latest research on its topic. The book includes sections that cover basic theory and behavioral research on distinctiveness, bizarreness effects, distinctiveness effects on implicit memory, the development of distinctiveness across the lifespan, distinctiveness in social context, and the neuroscience of distinctiveness and memory. In the concluding chapter, Fergus Craik offers his current perspective on distinctiveness and evaluates the various other theories of distinctiveness presented in the volume. Distinctiveness and Memory will be a valuable resource for student and professional researchers in neuroscience and cognitive, developmental, and social psychology.