For some, a protectionist policy underlies most environmental measures. Lawyers working in the area of fundamental freedoms are very accustomed to discussing all issues within a free market framework and therefore often come to market-friendly decisions. Similarly, while environmental law has taken on a renewed intensity at European level, the tendency has been to analyse the subject rather narrowly, and studies fail to address the impact of environmental law onmarket integration. Written by one of the foremost experts in the area, the book challenges current thought and re-assesses the rules of economic integration within an environmental framework. In so doing, it bridges the gap between environmental and trade law and provides a systematic, robust, and practically workable analytical framework of the conflicts opposing rapidly evolving environmental and climate change measures and internal market as well as competition rules. The book is divided into three parts, beginning with a systematic and in-depth analysis of the key Treaty provisions regarding environmental protection, as well as an overview of secondary environmental law. Part two addresses the compatibility of EU and national environmental protection measures with the provisions of the TFEU on the free movement of goods and services, and the freedom of establishment. Part three examines the compatibility of environmental protection measures with treatyprovisions on the freedom of competition and State aids. The book also includes discussion of all major cases handed down by the Court of Justice, highlighting the real impact of the conflicts.