Heroin, Organized Crime, and the Making of Modern Turkey explores the history of organized crime in Turkey and the roles which gangs and gangsters have played in the making of the Turkish state and Turkish politics. Turkeys underworld, which has been at the heart of several devastating scandals over the last several decades, is strongly tied to the countrys long history of opium production and heroin trafficking. As an industry at the centre of the OttomanEmpires long transition into the modern Turkish Republic, as important as the silk road had been in earlier centuries, the modern rise of the opium and heroin trade helped to solidify and complicate long-standing relationships between state officials and criminal syndicates. Such relationships produced notonly ongoing patterns of corruption, but helped fuel and enable repeated acts of state violence.Drawing upon new archival sources from the United States and Turkey, including declassified documents from the Prime Ministers Archives of the Republic of Turkey and the Central Intelligence Agency, Heroin, Organized Crime, and the Making of Modern Turkey provides a critical window into how a handful of criminal syndicates played supporting roles in the making of national security politics in the contemporary Turkey. The rise of the Turkish mafia, from its origins in the lateOttoman period to its role in the deep state revealed by the so-called Susurluk and Ergenekon scandals, is a story that mirrors troubling elements in the republics establishment and emphasizes the transnational and comparative significance of narcotics and gangs in the countrys past.