Fluid turbulence is often referred to as `the unsolved problem of classical physics'. Yet, paradoxically, its mathematical description resembles quantum field theory. The present book addresses the idealised problem posed by homogeneous, isotropic turbulence, in order to concentrate on the fundamental aspects of the general problem. It is written from the perspective of a theoretical physicist, but is designed to be accessible to all researchers in turbulence, boththeoretical and experimental, and from all disciplines. The book is in three parts, and begins with a very simple overview of the basic statistical closure problem, along with a summary of current theoretical approaches. This is followed by a precise formulation of the statistical problem, along witha complete set of mathematical tools (as needed in the rest of the book), and a summary of the generally accepted phenomenology of the subject. Part 2 deals with current issues in phenomenology, including the role of Galilean invariance, the physics of energy transfer, and the fundamental problems inherent in numerical simulation. Part 3 deals with renormalization methods, with an emphasis on the taxonomy of the subject, rather than on lengthy mathematical derivations. The book concludes withsome discussion of current lines of research and is supplemented by three appendices containing detailed mathematical treatments of the effect of isotropy on correlations, the properties of Gaussian distributions, and the evaluation of coefficients in statistical theories.