A comprehensive and detailed study on the scaling potential of calcium carbonate in seawater reverse osmosis systems (SWRO), this book provides a new approach for calculating the degree of supersaturation and the pH of the SWRO systems concentrates with the assistance of the feed-water pH and the inorganic carbon constituents. Furthermore, the book highlights the weakness in the present supersaturation indices and membrane manufacturers programs. Finally, the research suggested that SWRO concentrate is much lower undersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate than previously thought. This was confirmed by comprehensive pilot testing where acids and antiscalants used to prevent calcium carbonate scaling were completely eliminated from the pilot plant.
- Publication Date:
- 01 / 06 / 2011