In order to use rare earths successfully in various applications, a good understanding of the chemistry of these elements is of paramount importance. Nearly three to four decades have passed since titles such as The Rare Earths edited by F.H. Spedding and A.H. Daane, The chemistry of the Rare Earth Elements by N.E. Topp and Complexes of the Rare Earths by S.P. Sinha were published. There have been many international conferences and symposia on rare earths, as well as the series of volumes entitled Handbook of Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths edited by K.A. Gschneidner and L. Eyring. Thus, there is a need for a new title covering modern aspects of rare earth complexes along with the applications. The present title consists of twelve chapters. 1. Introduction 2. General aspects 3. Stability of complexes 4. Lanthanide complexes 5. Structural chemistry of lanthanide compounds 6. Organometallic complexes 7. Kinetics and mechanisms of rare earths complexation 8. Spectroscopy of lanthanide complexes 9. Photoelectron spectroscopy of rare earths 10. Lanthanide NMR shift reagents 11. Environmental ecological biological aspects 12. Applications The authors studied in schools headed by pioneers in rare earth chemistry, have a combined experience of one hundred and fifty years in inorganic chemistry, rare earth complex chemistry, nuclear and radiochemistry of rare earths and supramolecular chemistry. The present monograph is a product of this rich experience.