Petroleum Geochemistry and Exploration in the Afro-Asian Region includes 29 papers presented at the 6th International Conference on Petroleum Geochemistry and Exploration in the Afro-Asian Region.Petroleum geochemistry has played a crucial role in determining effective source rocks, classifying petroleum systems and delineating the geneses of conventional and unconventional oils and gases. By reference to petroleum geochemistry, the dynamic process of petroleum accumulations can be traced, which helps determining the prospecting target areas and reducing the exploration risk. Petroleum exploration is also enhanced by basin modeling and petroleum system classification, through the application of geochemical data. There has been significant progress in petroleum exploration due to the application of molecular geochemistry and biomarkers. Advances in this area include the identification and application of age-indicating biomarkers, the application of diamondoids in appraising the cracking level of crude oils, and the application of the compound-specific isotope analysis of biomarkers and the compound-specific isotope analysis of diamondoids (CSIAB and CSIAD) in oil-source correlation and quantitative identification of source-commingled oils. In reconstructing the history of oil and gas accumulations, three other techniques are of note: the dynamics of hydrocarbon generation, the dynamics of carbon isotopic fractionation and the analysis of liquid historical recordings (inclusions). Petroleum Geochemistry and Exploration in the Afro-Asian Region is an invaluable source of information for oil and gas explorers, petroleum geochemists and students of petroleum geochemistry. Researchers in petroleum companies and institutes will also find this publication useful.