As public accountability has increased and resources have become scarcer, public health, like clinical medicine, has been forced to re-examine the benefits and costs of its activities. Decision and economic analysis are basic tools in carrying out that mission. These methods have become standard practice in clinical medicine and health services research. This book , now in its second edition, was written in an effort to apply and adapt that experience with public health situations. The book was originally written to introduce Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staff to the concepts of decision and economic analysis, to provide guidance on methods to maximize comparability of studios, and to provide access to frequently used reference information. It has been adapted to meet the needs of scientists and managers in state and local health departments and managed care organizations as well as students in schools of public health and clinicians for an introductory text --a text that shows how these methods can be applied in population-based practice, to facilitate better comparability of studies, and to solidify understanding of the scientific basis for use of these tools in decision making. Decision makers will learn how these studies are conducted so they can be critical consumers-- understanding the strengths and limitations- and apply findings to policy and practice. The second edition updates and expands upon the standard methodology for condcuting prevention effectiveness analyses. Each chapter has been revised or re-written. The chapters on measuring effectiveness, decision analysis, and making information useful for decision makers as well as several appendices are entirely new.