Metabolic and electrolyte disorders can pose special challenges to physicians caring for the critically ill patients. Constrained by time and circumstances, clinicians require rapid access to information to help assess and manage these often life-threatening conditions. In this book, a readily useable road map is presented, emphasizing the interactions among problems and suggesting clear lines of action. Keeping the physiopathological mechanisms to the essential, and maintaining an uncluttered format, each chapter provides guidelines to understanding "how did we get here" and "what should we do now", as quickly and safely as possible. Chapters describe clinical presentation and management of the most common renal, electrolyte, acid-base, metabolic and endocrine disorders, complicating the course of critically ill patients. Contributing authors are all experts in their respective fields, who regularly engage in the day-to-day management of critically ill patients. In a rapidly changing field, the authors have endeavored to maintain an updated approach, emphasizing the most recent evidence on diagnosis and management. Although controversy in the interpretation and management of some problems is inevitable, the editors see it as a desirable way to depict differing interpretations and solutions for each problem. Each chapter ends with a selected list of key references to facilitate in-depth review of each subject. As with other titles in the Pittsburgh Critical Care Medicine series, this book is intended for frequent use by both "budding experts" as well as by seasoned practitioners in need for of quick and effective reference.