From the three perspectives of geography, economic policy, and ideology, this work examines corporate capitalism under the tsarist and late Soviet regimes. Thomas C. Owen discovers a remarkable history of thwarted effort and lost opportunity. He explores the impact of bureaucratic restrictions and reveals the entrepreneurial capabilities of Russia's corporate founders from various social groups as well as the prominence of Poles, Germans, Jews, Armenians, and foreign citizens in the corporate elite of the Russian Empire and its ten largest cities. The study stresses continuities between tsarist and late Soviet periods, especially in the persistence of anti-capitalist attitudes, both radical and reactionary. A provocative final chapter considers the implications of the weak corporate heritage for the future of Russian capitalism.